Physical Division of India
Major Plateau of India
The peninsular plateau of India is a table shaped site made of old crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks. The peninsular plateau of India was formed due to the breakdown and runoff of the Gondwana land and that is why it is a part of the oldest landmass. This plateau has wide and shallow valleys and circular hills. There are two main parts of this plateau-
- Middle highland
- Deccan Plateau
- To the north of the Narmada River, the part of the peninsular plateau that extends over most of the Malwa plateau is known as the Middle Highlands.
- The Vindhya range is bounded by the central highland in the south and the Aravalli in the northwest. In the west, it gradually merges with the rocky deserts of Rajasthan.
- In this region Chambal, Sindh, Betwa and Cane rivers flow from southwest to north-east thus indicating the gradient of this region.
- The middle highland is wide in the west but narrow in the east.
- The eastern extension of this plateau is locally known as Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.
- Its further east extension shows the Chota Nagpur Plateau drained by the Damodar River.
- The plateau to the south is a triangular terrain situated to the south of the Narmada River.
- In the north, there is a series of Satpura on its broad base, while the hill of Mahadev and the Maikal range is its eastern extensions.
- The Deccan plateau, also known as the Great Peninsular Plateau, is the largest plateau in India, this plateau is triangular, with a portion of the plateau also seen in the northeast which is locally called ‘Meghalaya or Shillong Plateau’. And is known as ‘Uttar Kachar Pahari’.
- It is separated from the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
- Three important chains from west to east are Garo Khasi and Jaintia.
- The Eastern and Western Ghats are located on the eastern and western tip of the south (Deccan) plateau respectively.
- The Western Ghats lie parallel to the western coast.
- They are continuous and can only be crossed through the passes.
- The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.
- A feature of the peninsular plateau is the black soil found here, also known as the “Deccan Trap”.
- It originated from the volcano hence its shell is Igneous Shell. In fact, these rocks have eroded over time, creating black soils.
- The Aravali hills lie on the western and northwest sides of the peninsular plateau.
- These are highly degraded and fragmented hills.
- These extend from south to west and north-east direction from Gujarat to Delhi.