Physical Division of India

Himalaya Range

India can be divided into the following classes on the basis of geographical location-

  • Himalaya Range
  • Northan Plain
  • Peninsular Pleatue
  • Indian Desert
  • Coastal Plain
  • Islands

Himalaya Mountains Physical Division-

The broad Himalayas on the northern border of India are geologically young and composed from the point of view of the mountain range. These mountain ranges extend from the Indus to the Brahmaputra in the west-east direction. The Himalayas are the highest mountain range in the world and one of the highest Assam barriers. They form a semicircle extending 2400 km in length. Its width is 400 Km in Kashmir and 150 Km in Arunachal. The eastern part is more varied in height than the western part. They can divide the Himalayas into four parts with their longitudinal extension.

  • Trans Himalaya
  • Great Himalaya
  • Lower Himalaya
  • Shivalik Himalaya

Trans Himalaya-

The ‘Trans Himalayas’ or ‘Tibet Himalayas’ lie to the north of the Great Himalayas, and include mountain ranges named the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Kailash. The Karakoram, Ladakh and Zaskar mountain ranges of the Trans Himalayas are also found in India, but the expansion of the Kailash mountain range is not entirely in India but in Tibet. The world’s second-highest mountain peak and India’s highest mountain peak is K2 (Godwin Austin) (8611 m), which is located in the Karakoram range.

Great Himalaya-

The highest range of the Himalayas is known by the names of the Great Himalayas, Great Himalayas, Himadri etc. It is the most continuous and highest range of the Himalayas, with an average elevation of about 6000 m. The highest peaks of the Himalayas, Mount Everest (8850 meters), Kanchenjunga, etc. are found in this mountain range. This Himalayan range was built first and its core is made of granite. Many big glaciers originate from here, such as Gangotri, Yamunotri.

Lower Himalaya-

These chains are mainly composed of highly compressed and transformed rocks. Their height is between 3700 meters to 4500 meters and the average width is 50 kilometers. While the Pir Panjal series is the longest and most ambitious series, the Dhauladhar and Mahabharata series are also ambitious. In this chain, the valley of Kashmir and the valleys of Kangra and Kullu of Himachal Pradesh are located. The region is known for its hilly towns, famous for small Himalayan hill tourist centers.

Shivalik Himalaya-

The Shivalik range in the south of the miniature Himalayas is the outermost range of the Himalayas, with a width of 10 to 50 Km and elevation between 900 and 1100 meters. These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges in the north. These valleys are covered with a thick layer of gravel and alluvial. The perpendicular valley between the lower Himachal and Shivalik is known as Doon. Here are some of the famous Doon – Dehradun, Kotlidun and Patalidun.


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