NCERT Notes and Solutions for Class 7


Chapter -1


Environment –

  • It is derived from the French word Environner having meaning neighbourhood.
  • The environment is basic life support which provides the air, the water, the food, and the land.
  • We can define the environment as surrounding of any living organism which includes biotic and non- biotic components.

Biotic and Non- biotic components-

  • Biotic and non-biotic components are the natural environment. Here Biotic components refer to the living organism. Example- Plants, Animals.
  • Whereas Abiotic components refer to non-living elements of nature. Example- Land

(i) Natural Environment

(ii) Human-made Environment

(iii) Human

(i) Natural Environment – 

  • The natural environment includes land, water, air, plants and animals.  Various domains of the natural environment are –
    (A) Lithosphere - 
  • It is the hard and solid top-most layer of the earth. It provides us forests, farms, grassland and land for human settlement. It is covered with soil, minerals and rocks.
  • It includes landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains etc.
  • It comprises of all domains of water and water bodies like lake, river, seas, oceans etc.
    (C) Atmosphere -
  • It is a thin layer of air that surrounds the earth.
  • It protects us from the harmful rays of the sun.
  • It consists of gases, dust and water vapour.
    (D) Biosphere -
  • It is a narrow zone of the earth where land, water and air interact with each other to support life.

(ii) Human-made Environment –

The artificial environment which is made by a human. This includes-

  1. Buildings
  2. Park
  3. Bridges
  4. Roads
  5. Industries
  6. Monuments

(iii) Human Environment –

Every human has the tendency to adopt the natural environment as well as the surrounding. There must be a perfect balance between the natural and human environment. The human environment includes the following domains-

  1. Individual
  2. Family
  3. Community
  4. Religion
  5. Educational
  6. Economic
  7. Political situations



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