Plants can be classified into three categories.

  1. Herbs
  2. Shrubs 
  3. Trees.


  • Green and tender stem.
  • Short.
  • Do not have many branches.


  • The stems are hand but not very thick.
  • Develop branches near the base of the stem.


  • Very tall.
  • Hold and thick stem.
  • Branches in the upper part much above the ground.

Creepers and Climbers-

Creepers – 

Plants with weak stems that cannot stand upright but spread on the ground.

Climber – 

Plants that take the support of other plants and climb up.

Stem –

Helps in the movement of water and minerals to different parts of plants.

Leaf –

Leaves are of different shapes, sizes, and colours.

  • Petiole – The part of the leaf by which it is attached to stem.
  • Lamina – The broad green part of the leaf.
  • Veins – Lines on the leaf.
  • Midrib – prominent line in the middle of the leaf.

Leaf venation-

The design made by veins in a leaf.

  • Reticulate- If this design is net-like on both sides of the midrib.
  • Parallel venation – If the veins are parallel to one another.

Transpiration –

Water comes out of leaves in the form of vapours by the process. of transpiration.

Photosynthesis – 

Leaves prepare their food in the presence of sunlight and green coloured substance present in them with the help of water and carbon dioxide, this process is called photosynthesis.

Roots – 

There are two types of roots – 

  1. Taproot – It is the main root that we call tap root with further smaller roots called lateral roots.
  2. Fibrous roots – It does not have the main root, all roots seem similar.

Flowers – 

Flowers are of different colour, shape, and size and are a most beautiful part of plant.

Here are parts of a flower-

  • Petal –  The prominent part of the open flower. Different flowers have petals in different colours.
  • Sepals –  Small leaf-like structure.
  • Stamen –  This part of flower produce pollen. It consists of filament which supports the anther (where pollens are produced).
  • Pistil –  The innermost part of The flower. It consists of the ovary which is lowermost and swollen part of the pistil and small head like structure inside the ovary is called ovules.


1. Correct the following statements and rewrite them in your notebook.

(a) Stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.

(b) Leaves hold the plant upright.

(c) Roots conduct water to the leaves.

(d) The number of petals and stamens in a flower is always equal.

(e) If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are also joined together.

(f) If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil is joined to the petal.


a) Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil.

b) The stem holds the plant upright.

c) Stems conduct water to the leaves.

d) The number of petals and stamens in a flower may not be always equal.

e) If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are separate.

f) If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil may or may not be joined to the petal.

2. Draw (a) a leaf, (b) a taproot and (c) a flower, you have studied for Table 7.3


(a) A leaf

(b) A taproot

(c) a flower

3. Can you find a plant in your house or in your neighborhood, which has a long but weak stem? Write its name. In which category will you place it?


Yes, money plant has weak stem as it is a climber.

4. What is the function of a stem?


Stem conducts water as well as food to other parts of the plant.

5. Which of the following leaves have reticulate venation?

Wheat, tulsi, maize, grass, coriander (dhania), China rose.


Leaves have reticulate venation:
•China rose

6. If a plant has fibrous root, what type of venation do its leaves have?


If a plant has a fibrous root, its leaves have parallel venation.

7. If a plant has leaves with reticulate venation, what kind of roots will it have?


It will have a taproot.

8. Is it possible for you to find out whether a plant has taproot or fibrous roots by looking at the impression of its leaf on a sheet of paper?


Yes, we can find whether the plant has taproot or fibrous root.

9. What are the parts of a flower?


Here are the parts of a flower:
• Stigma
• Style

10. From the following plants, which of them have flowers?

Grass, maize, wheat, chilli, tomato, tulsi, peepal, shisham, banyan, mango, jamun, guava, pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon, sugarcane, potato, groundnut.


Following plants have flower

Chilli. Lemon, Tomato. Jamun, Tulsi. Guava, Mango. Banana, Pomegranate.

11. Name the part of plant which produces food. Name the process.


Part of a plant which produces food are leaves and we call this process Photosynthesis.

12. In which part of a flower, you will find the ovary?


The ovary is present is the lowermost part of pistil.

13. Name two plants in which one has joined sepals and the other has separate sepals.


Plants with joined sepals are cotton and tomato.
Plants with separate sepals are lily, lotus.


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