Low lying area where garbage is collected.

• Reused part is separated out from that garbage.


Conversion of materials into manure.


The method of preparing compost with the help of redworms.

We can use green leaves, husk, or piece of paper for it, dried animal dung, cardboard for it.

•Spread the above-mentioned items over the layer of sand.

•Sprinkle some water.

•Make the layer loose for passage of sufficient air and moisture.

•Keep redworms in this pit.

•Cover them with a cloth.

•Observe the pit after 3-4 weeks.

•Your vermicompost is ready.

Plastics -Boon or a curse?

•All kind of plastics produces harmful gases which harm our environment.

•These gases may cause many health problems including cancer.

•The plastic bags thrown away on the roads which get into the sewer system and choked it and as result water spread on the road.
So to prevent the above damages:

• We minimize the use of plastic bags and ask shopkeepers to provide paper bags.

•We never burn plastics

•We should follow 3R’s :
(Reuse, reduce, recycle)


1. (a) Which kind of garbage is not converted into compost by the red worms?

(b) Have you seen any other organism besides red worms, in your pit? If yes, try to find out their names. Draw pictures of these.


(a) Non-biodegradable garbage such as plastic items bag, Aluminum foil, cans, chemicals, glass is not converted into compost by the red worms.

(b) Earthworms, white worm, ants are other organisms besides redworms in pits.

2. Discuss:
(a) Is garbage disposal the responsibility only of the government?

(b) Is it possible to reduce the problems relating to disposal of garbage?


(a) No, it is just not the responsibility of government, being a citizen of a country it is our duty to dispose of garbage to make our surroundings clean and environment healthy. We should strictly follow the policies of the government regarding garbage disposal and cleaning.

(b) Yes, it is possible by practicing various disposal activities like vermicomposting, recycling, reusing the garbage.

3. (a) What do you do with the leftover food at home?

(b) If you and your friends are given the choice of eating in a plastic plate or a banana leaf platter at a party, which one would you prefer and why?


(a)We keep it in the fridge to prevent it from getting spoil.

(b) I choose Banana leaf because of the following reasons:

• Will, not harm the environment.

• Can be reused.

• Banana leaf will not harm our health as plastic plates are not good for health.

•Biodegredable waste is so easy to dispose of.

4. (a) Collect pieces of different kinds of paper. Find out which of these can be recycled.

(b) With the help of a lens look at the pieces of paper you collected for the above question. Do you see any difference in the material of recycled paper and a new sheet of paper?


(a) After collecting various papers we have observed that except plastic papers, every paper can be recycled.

(b) Yes, there is a difference in a recycled and new sheet of paper as recycled papers are less cleaned and thick while a new sheet of papers have cleaned look and is thin.

5. (a)Collect different kinds of packaging material. What was the purpose for which each one was used? Discuss in groups.

(b) Give an example in which packaging could have been reduced?

(c) Write a story on how packaging increases the amount of garbage.


Here are different types of packaging materials:

•Paper bags- Shopping bags, groceries, gift items.

•Plastic – Uses in chicken -mutton shops, packing snacks, bottles.

•Metals – The main use of these metals is the preservation of drinks., oil.

•Glass- Storing of beverages.

•Cardboard – Electronic items,  shoes, soap.

•Jute- Packing of vegetables, fruits, pulses, school bags.


•We can carry our own bags to market this will reduce the use of carry bags.

•Instead of making small packs of individual items, there should be a single large pack of similar types of products.

(c) A large amount of packaging increases the amount of garbage as we throw packaging instead of reusing it again. But we can reuse it for later use or as a decorative item or storing /preserving something. This will help in minimizing the collection of garbage. There must be the use of such packaging items which are biodegradable such as paper bags.

6. Do you think it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers? Why?


Here are the reasons that It is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers:

•Compost will not harm our environment.

•It is economical and easy to prepare.

•It will not harm our health as it is chemical-free.

•Increases soil fertility.


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