We eat a variety of food items in our daily life, some are useful for us as they contain some components that are needed by our body while some are not good for our health. So, here is this chapter we will discuss about various components of food.

What does a different item contain?

Nutrients – ingredients contain some components that are needed by our body.

Major nutrients in our food are-

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins minerals
  • Dietary fibers
  • Water

Tests for nutrients –

1. Carbohydrates –

The main carbohydrates found in our food are in form of starch and sugars.


Food items + iodine solution (2-3 drops)


    The food item turns blue-black.

NOTE – Dilute iodine solution prepared by adding tincture iodine to a half-filled test tube with water.

2. Protein –

Food item + 2 drops of copper sulfate & 10 drops of solutions caustic soda

⇓shake well

Violet colour indicates the presence of protein

3. Fats –

Take a small quantity of food items to wrap a piece of paper and crush. it. An oily patch on paper shows. That food item contains fat.

What do various nutrients do for our bodies?

  • Carbohydrates – Energy in our body.
  • Fats –  More energy as compared to the same amount of carbohydrate.
  • Proteins –  Growth, and repair of our body called bodybuilding foods.
  • Vitamins –  Helps in protecting our body against diseases.

  • Minerals – Proper growth of the body, maintain good health.
  • Dietary fibers –  Helps our body get rid of undigested food.
  • Water – Absorb nutrients from food. at also helps in throwing out some wastes from the body as urine and sweat.

Balance Diet-

The diet should also contain a good amount of roughage and water, such as diet is called a balanced diet.

Deficiency diseases-

Diseases that occur due to lack of nutrients over a long period.


1. Name the major nutrients in our food.


Major nutrients in our food are vitamins, protein, carbohydrate, minerals, and fibers.

2. Name the following:

(a) The nutrients which mainly give energy to our body. 

(b) The nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of our body. 

(c) A vitamin required for maintaining good eyesight. 

(d) A mineral that is required for keeping our bones healthy. 

(a) Carbohydrates

(b) Proteins and minerals

(c) Vitamin A

(d) Calcium

3. Name two foods each rich in:

(a) Fats 

(b) Starch

(c) Dietary fiber

(d) Protein


(a) Fish, Butter

(b) Potatoes, Rice

(c) Peas, Pears

(d) Eggs, Milk

4. Tick (√) the statements that are correct.

(a) By eating rice alone, we can fulfill nutritional requirement of our body.

(b) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by eating a balanced diet. 

(c) Balanced diet for the body should contain a variety of food items. 

(d) Meat alone is sufficient to provide all nutrients to the body. 


(a) ( )

(b) (√)

(c) (√)

(d) ( )

5. Fill in the blanks

(a) ____________ is caused by deficiency of Vitamin D.

(b) Deficiency of _____________ causes a disease known as beri-beri.

(c) Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease known as __________.

(d) Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of ___________ in our food.


(a) Rickets

(b) vitamin B1

(c) scurvy

(d) vitamin A


Latest articles

Related articles

error: Content is protected !!